In 1672, Flemish missionary Ferdinand Verbister invented the first steam-powered automobile. This is a scale toy model of Emperor Kangxi, 65cm (26in) long, but not suitable for the driver or passenger. [11][24][25] It is unclear whether Verbiest’s model was effectively developed or tested. [25]

The Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris, France, has a replica of Cugnot’s fardier à vapeur from 1771.
Around 1769, Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built the first fully self-propelled mechanical vehicle; it was a steam-powered tricycle. [26] Two steam tractors he also built for the French army are still on display at the French National School of Applied Arts. [26] Water supply problems limited his invention.